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Aroma Those odors in wine primarily derived from the grape.
Bentonite A clay used as a fining agent to achieve heat stabilization or to aid in the removal of other fining agents.
Bisulfite A source of sulfur dioxide.
Bouquet Those odors in wine related to processing, such as fermentation, wood aging, bottle aging, etc.
Brix Value used to express the weight in grams of sucrose dissolved in 100 grams of a solute, such as grape juice.
Browning Undesirable brownish (amber, tawny, dark yellow) color change in table wine resulting from oxidation.
Chaptilization Adding sugar to must or juice before fermentation to make up for deficiencies.
Concentrate, grape Refers to concentrated grape juice, in which the water content has been reduced so that the soluble (dissolved) solids are increased to 68-70 Brix.
Dryness Term that denotes absence of fermentatable sugar, as in a dry wine; complete fermentation.
Esterification Combination between the various acids and higher alcohols in the wine to form esters whose fresh fruity aroma appears in the bouquet.
Ethanol, ethyl alcohol One of the two major products of grape sugar fermentation.
Fermentation Conversion of grape Sugar by yeast to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fermentation trap The device that allows escape of carbon dioxide gas and prevents entrance of air through the opening of the fermentor.
Fermentor The vessel used to conduct primary fermentation.
Fining agent. The addition of various materials that remove certain wine constituents for improved wine quality and stability, such as bentonite, kieselsol, gelatin, etc.
Hydrometer An instrument used for the measurement of dissolved solids such as sugar or Brix of solutions, such as grape juice or wine.
Lees The sediment residue of wine fermentation, comprised mostly of spent yeast cells and grape particulate matter.
Must Crushed grape mixture that contains juice and additives before the addition of yeast.
Oxidation Process whereby grape juice or wine constituents react with oxygen, resulting in undesirable odor and flavor changes.
Polyphenolic Naturally occurring compounds in grapes and wine (for example, tannins); important in flavor and involved in many complex wine aging and related reactions.
Racking The siphoning of clear juice or wine from sedimented solids for maturing and clearing the wine.
Sulfur dioxide, SO2 An antiseptic for inhibiting spoilage microorganisms in wine making. Also acts as an antioxidant. Used universally as a wine preservative and sanitizing agent.
Tannins Phenolic compounds naturally occurring in grapes and wine; responsible for astringency and/or bitter flavors in wine.

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